What is the pathogenesis of chronic subdural hematomas (SDHs)?

Updated: Jul 26, 2018
  • Author: Richard J Meagher, MD; Chief Editor: Helmi L Lutsep, MD  more...
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Answer

Chronic subdural hematoma is commonly associated with cerebral atrophy. Cortical bridging veins are thought to be under greater tension as the brain gradually shrinks from the skull; even minor trauma may cause one of these veins to tear. Slow bleeding from the low-pressure venous system often enables large hematomas to form before clinical signs appear.

Small subdural hematomas often spontaneously resorb. Larger collections of subdural blood usually organize and form vascular membranes that encapsulate the subdural hematoma. Repeated bleeding from small, friable vessels within these membranes may account for the expansion of some chronic subdural hematomas.

Chronic subdural hematomas may also evolve from the liquefaction of an acute subdural hematoma, particularly one that is relatively asymptomatic. Liquefaction usually occurs after 1-3 weeks, with the hematoma appearing hypodense on a CT scan.

Some chronic subdural hematomas may also enlarge from an osmotic gradient, drawing more fluid into the subdural space, or through the separate mechanism of calcification. [7]


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