Other than CT and MRI, which imaging studies may be helpful in the evaluation of hydrocephalus?

Updated: Jun 04, 2018
  • Author: Stephen L Nelson, Jr, MD, PhD, FAACPDM, FAAN, FAAP; Chief Editor: Jasvinder Chawla, MD, MBA  more...
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Answer

Ultrasonography through the anterior fontanelle in infants is useful for evaluating subependymal and intraventricular hemorrhage and in following infants for possible development of progressive hydrocephalus.

Radionuclide cisternography can be done in NPH to evaluate the prognosis with regard to possible shunting. If a late scan (48-72 h) shows persistence of ventricular activity with a ventricular to total intracranial activity (V/T ratio) greater than 32%, the patient is more likely to benefit from shunting. [16] Because of its poor sensitivity in predicting shunt response when the V/T ration is less than 32%, this test is no longer commonly used.

Skull radiographs may depict erosion of sella turcica, or "beaten copper cranium" (called by some authors "beaten silver cranium"). The latter can also be seen in craniosynostosis. Skull radiographs, however, are seldom helpful or indicated.

MRI cine is an MRI technique to measure CSF stroke volume (SV) in the cerebral aqueduct. Cine phase-contrast MRI measurements of SV in the cerebral aqueduct does not appear to be useful in predicting response to shunting. [2]

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a novel imaging technique that detects differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of the brain parenchyma surrounding the ventricles. Impairment of FA and MD through DTI allows the recognition of microstructural changes in periventricular white matter region that may be too subtle on conventional MRI. [3]


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