What are congenital causes of hydrocephalus?

Updated: Jun 04, 2018
  • Author: Stephen L Nelson, Jr, MD, PhD, FAACPDM, FAAN, FAAP; Chief Editor: Jasvinder Chawla, MD, MBA  more...
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Answer

Congenital causes in infants and children include the following: [8]

  • Brainstem malformation causing stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius: This is responsible for 10% of all cases of hydrocephalus in newborns.

  • Dandy-Walker malformation: This affects 2-4% of newborns with hydrocephalus.

  • Arnold-Chiari malformation type 1 and type 2

  • Agenesis of the foramen of Monro

  • Congenital toxoplasmosis

  • Bickers-Adams syndrome: This is an X-linked hydrocephalus accounting for 7% of cases in males. It is characterized by stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius, severe intellectual disability, and in 50% by an adduction-flexion deformity of the thumb.


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