What is the role of histology in the diagnosis of cutaneous manifestations of HIV infection?

Updated: Mar 26, 2021
  • Author: Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: William D James, MD  more...
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Histopathologic examination is useful to diagnose cutaneous manifestations of HIV disease with atypical clinical features and Kaposi sarcoma (KS). Routine hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff stainings may demonstrate multinuclear cells with intracytoplasmic inclusions of herpes simplex virus infection. Other special stains may identify additional pathogens, or they may confirm malignancies, such as KS. Histologic assessment of the CXCL12 axis may be a useful biomarker for diagnosing KS and assessing its progression. [64]

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