Which physical findings are characteristic of perforating granuloma annulare?

Updated: Oct 15, 2020
  • Author: Ruby Ghadially, MBChB, FRCP(C)Derm; Chief Editor: William D James, MD  more...
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Patients with perforating granuloma annulare present with 1 to hundreds of grouped 1- to 4-mm papules that range in color from flesh-toned to erythematous. Papules often coalesce to form annular plaques. In some patients, the erythematous papules may evolve into yellowish pustular lesions that subsequently exude a thick and creamy or clear and viscous fluid, forming umbilicating, crusting, or scaling papular lesions that heal, leaving atrophic hypopigmented or hyperpigmented scars. Larger and more ulcerated plaques are common in middle-aged and elderly patients. Lesions affect all areas of the body but have a predilection for the extensor surfaces of extremities and the dorsa of hands and fingers.

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