What are the infectious causes of erythema annulare centrifugum (EAC)?

Updated: Mar 06, 2020
  • Author: Dirk M Elston, MD; Chief Editor: William D James, MD  more...
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Answer

Infection-related causes include the following:

  • Bacteria: Associations include Escherichia coli. One case associated EAC with a urinary tract infection that cleared 3 weeks after treatment of the urinary tract infection. [12] Other associated bacterial infections include streptococcal infections (eg, bacterial meningitis.
  • Fungi: Dermatophytes ( Trichophyton, tinea pedis, Pityrosporum orbiculare/Malassezia furfur) are associated, as is Candida albicans and blue cheese Penicillium.
  • Mycobacteria: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is associated. Treatment with isoniazid, rifampin, and streptomycin cleared the eruption of EAC within 20 day of starting therapy for tuberculosis in a patient.
  • Parasites: These include Ascaris lumbricoides [13] ; EAC resolved after treatment with piperazine and thiabendazole. Also, EAC has been reported in association with Phthirus pubis infestation. [14]
  • Viruses: EAC has been reported in association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in an infant [15] and with molluscum contagiosum in an 8-year-old child. In the infant, the appearance and subsequent resolution of the eruption coincided with the patient's anti-EBV antibody titer, supporting EBV as the inciting agent. In addition, the viral genome has been found in the DNA of Reed-Sternberg cells in patients with Hodgkin disease and in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Both of these neoplasms have been associated with EAC. Two cases of EAC were reported in a dermatomal distribution within the exact distributions of recent prior herpes zoster infections. These cases were cited as examples of "Wolf's isotopic response." [16] In 2006, erythema annulare centrifugum (EAC) was reported in an HIV-positive patient. [17]

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