How is primary cutaneous Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) infection treated?

Updated: May 27, 2021
  • Author: Jaggi Rao, MD, FRCPC; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
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Treatment of a 9-year-old patient with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI, or MAC) infection with a combination of surgery and cycloserine (500 mg/d), isoniazid (200 mg/d), and clarithromycin (150 mg/d) following susceptibility testing resulted in complete clearance after 2 months of medical therapy, followed by surgical excision. [37]

For adult patients, streptomycin (1 g intramuscularly [IM] daily for 3 mo), isoniazid (300 mg/d), and rifampicin (600 mg/d for 9 mo) have been used as treatment. Some cases also require local excision and skin grafting. [1] Another case study from 2019 reported using vacuum-sealing drainage at the surgery incision site to drain pathogens and secretions from the infected site. [38]

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