What is the role of epoetin alfa (Epogen) in the pathogenesis of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF)?

Updated: May 22, 2018
  • Author: Noah S Scheinfeld, JD, MD, FAAD; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
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Answer

The relationship between epoetin alfa (Epogen) and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis has engendered controversy. Whether epoetin alfa is related to nephrogenic systemic fibrosis or if severe renal impairment merely sets the stage for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis remains unclear. Goveia et al [17] noted in their case control study that 100% of patients with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (n = 8) were treated with recombinant epoetin after undergoing renal transplantation versus only 6% of control subjects (n = 24). They theorized that epoetin, through its ability to promote endothelial cell proliferation and augment fibrin-induced wound healing, could play a role in the pathogenesis of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Saab [18] challenged this conclusion and noted that 88% of patients with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis had a serum creatinine greater than 5 mg/dL as compared with only 21% of control subjects. The fact that these patients had significantly worse renal function as compared with most of the control subjects puts them at higher risk for requiring recombinant epoetin therapy for management of anemia. Because nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is only seen in patients with severe renal insufficiency, the epoetin requirement in this group may simply be a manifestation of decreased renal function.


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