Which physical findings are characteristic of cutaneous cholesterol emboli (CCE)?

Updated: Apr 12, 2021
  • Author: Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
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Answer

The most comprehensive review of CCE is by Falanga and associates from 1986. [29] The cutaneous findings in 78 patients with CE were LR in 38 (49%), gangrene in 27 (35%), cyanosis in 22 (28%), ulceration in 13 (17%), purple toes in 11 (14%), nodules in 8 (10%), and purpura in 7 (9%). Many of these signs are exacerbated with limb dependency. Rarely, CCE may appear as a solitary persistent painful ulcer on the elbow [21]  or an a pruritic patch on the flank. [30]

LR was usually bilateral and almost always involved the feet and legs, extending to the thighs, trunk, and even upper extremities in some. In one review, it was observed as late as 5-16 weeks after an inciting event. Gangrene was neither consistently unilateral nor bilateral and primarily occurred in the toes. Toe findings may be striking. [31] Cyanosis was usually bilateral and located on the toes but also involved the feet and, rarely, the upper extremities. Ulceration was more often unilateral and occurred mostly on the toes and feet but was also observed on the legs. Nodules occurred exclusively on the lower extremities, mostly from the ankles to the waist. Purpura was always below the knee, mostly on the legs and feet.

Several reports have emphasized involvement of the genitals. Findings have included scrotal ischemia and necrosis and penile necrosis with ulceration of the glans. Balanitis may progress to preputial necrosis.

Other associated cutaneous findings include splinter and subungual hemorrhages.

Distal pulses are often reported to be normal in persons with CCE, especially early in the disease. However, in a review of 51 cases of CCE in which pulses were mentioned, 29 (57%) were normal, 20 (39%) were bilaterally decreased, and 2 (4%) were absent.

The most common noncutaneous findings in patients with CCE are fever, myalgia, weight loss, altered mental status, and the sudden onset of arterial hypertension.


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