What are risk factors for the development of calciphylaxis?

Updated: Feb 24, 2020
  • Author: Julia R Nunley, MD; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
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Answer

The patient's history may reveal an event that is a suspected trigger or risk factor for the development of calciphylaxis. These triggers include the following [6, 9, 8, 21, 18, 19, 20, 24, 34, 35] :

  • Long-term obesity

  • Recent and sudden weight loss

  • Malnutrition

  • Infusion of medications such as iron dextran

  • Remote and/or recent use of immunosuppressive agents, especially corticosteroids

  • Liver disease

  • Connective-tissue disease

  • Diabetes mellitus and insulin injections

  • Use of vitamin D and calcium-based phosphate binders

  • Elevated aluminum levels

  • Concomitant vascular disease

  • Systemic hypercoagulability

  • Vitamin K deficiency

  • Concurrent use of warfarin anticoagulation: Current data suggest that warfarin therapy may lower protein C concentrations, leading to a procoagulant condition in the calcified vessel. Warfarin may also inhibit carboxylation of matrix Gla protein, an important inhibitor of calcification, thus promoting calcification


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