Which medications in the drug class Local Anesthetics, Amides are used in the treatment of Reduction of Shoulder Dislocation?

Updated: Aug 17, 2018
  • Author: Anantha K Mallia, DO, FACEP; Chief Editor: Erik D Schraga, MD  more...
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Answer

Local Anesthetics, Amides

Local anesthetics block the initiation and conduction of nerve impulses. Anesthetics used for the procedure include lidocaine.

Lidocaine and epinephrine (Xylocaine MPF with Epinephrine)

Lidocaine is an amide local anesthetic used in 1% concentration. It inhibits depolarization of type C sensory neurons by blocking sodium channels.

Epinephrine prolongs its effect and enhances hemostasis (maximum epinephrine dose, 4.5-7 mg/kg).

Mepivacaine (Polocaine MPF, Prilocaine, Carbocaine)

Mepivacaine 2-3% prevents the generation and conduction of nerve impulses. For longer surgical anesthesia, up to 3-4 hours, 1:400,000 epinephrine is added to the solution. Epinephrine prolongs the duration of the anesthetic effects from mepivacaine by causing vasoconstriction of the blood vessels surrounding the nerve axons. The block completely resolves about 3-4 hours later.


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