What causes thrombophlebitis?

Updated: Aug 31, 2020
  • Author: Padma Chitnavis, MD; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
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Answer

See Pathophysiology.

Trauma to a varicose vein or healthy vein is common.

Predisposing factors include any event that can reduce venous flow; examples include prolonged sitting or immobilization and dehydration (eg, as on a long airline flight), long surgery, or prolonged bed rest.

Genetic thrombophilia or underlying malignancy can lead to a hypercoagulable state.

Internal trauma to a vein due to an indwelling catheter or even a difficult phlebotomy procedure can also cause venous injury and inflammation.

Viral diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Chikungunya virus infection, have been associated with superficial and deep thrombophlebitis. [87, 88]


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