How do hormonal changes affect the presentation of superficial venous insufficiency?

Updated: Sep 25, 2020
  • Author: Robert Weiss, MD; Chief Editor: William D James, MD  more...
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Episodic pain and other symptoms associated with superficial venous disease may be temporally related to hormonal changes, both physiologic and pharmacologic. One half of all pregnant women with varicose veins complain of pain, and 17% are unable to remain upright for more than 1-2 hours at a time because of the severity of the pain.

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