What are the risk factors of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)?

Updated: Sep 25, 2020
  • Author: Robert Weiss, MD; Chief Editor: William D James, MD  more...
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The incidence of CVI rises substantially with age. A history of DVT, which renders venous valves incompetent and thereby causes backflow and increased venous pressure, is a risk factor.

A sedentary lifestyle minimizes the pump action of calf muscles on venous return, causing higher venous pressure. CVI occurs more frequently in women who are obese. Vocations that involve standing for long periods predispose individuals to increased venous pressure in dependent lower extremities. A higher incidence of CVI is observed in men who smoke. Pregnancy is an important causative factor in the development of peripheral venous insufficiency. Contraceptive medication use, hypertension, previous leg injuries, and low intake of cellulose fibbers have also been considered. [5]

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