Which three venous systems are affected by chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)?

Updated: Oct 22, 2018
  • Author: Robert Weiss, MD; Chief Editor: William D James, MD  more...
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The venous network in the lower extremities commonly affected by CVI is divided into the following three systems (see the images below):

  • Superficial veins (including the great saphenous vein [GSV], the small saphenous vein [SSV], and their tributaries)

  • Deep veins (including the anterior tibial, posterior tibial, peroneal, popliteal, deep femoral, superficial femoral, and iliac veins)

  • Perforating or communicating veins

    Lower-leg venous anatomy. Lower-leg venous anatomy.
    Perforating veins of lower leg. Perforating veins of lower leg.

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