Which medications in the drug class Chemotherapy agents are used in the treatment of Dermatologic Manifestations of Kaposi Sarcoma?

Updated: Mar 26, 2021
  • Author: Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
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Answer

Chemotherapy agents

Chemotherapy agents inhibit cell growth and proliferation. Vincristine 2 mg IV alternating with vinblastine 0.1 mg/kg IV qwk is effective. Doxorubicin, an anthracycline, is used effectively as ABV combination (doxorubicin A=anthracycline [20 mg/m2 IV], B=bleomycin [10 U/m2 IV], V=vincristine [1.4 mg/m2 IV q2wk]). The combination may produce alopecia, neuropathy, neutropenia, nausea and vomiting, oral erosions, or palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia.

Vinblastine (Alkaban-AQ, Velban)

Vinblastine is an important vinca alkaloid, which is the salt of a common flowering herb, the periwinkle Vinca rosea. It inhibits microtubule formation, which, in turn, disrupts the formation of the mitotic spindle, causing cell proliferation to arrest at metaphase.

Vincristine (Oncovin, Vincasar PFS)

Vincristine is the salt of a common flowering herb, the periwinkle Vinca rosea. Its mechanism of action is uncertain. It may involve a decrease in reticuloendothelial cell function or an increase in platelet production.

Bleomycin (Blenoxane)

Bleomycin is a mixture of cytotoxic glycopeptide antibiotics isolated from a strain of Streptomyces verticillus and freely soluble in water. It is a glycopeptide antibiotic that inhibits DNA synthesis. It is used for palliative measures in the management of several neoplasms.

Doxorubicin (Adriamycin, Rubex)

Doxorubicin is a cytotoxic anthracycline antibiotic isolated from cultures of Streptomyces peucetius var caesius. It inhibits topoisomerase II and produces free radicals, which may cause the destruction of DNA. The combination of these 2 events can in turn inhibit the growth of neoplastic cells.

Daunorubicin (Cerubidine, DaunoXome)

Daunorubicin inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis by intercalating between DNA base pairs.

Paclitaxel (Taxol)

Paclitaxel's mechanisms of action are tubulin polymerization and microtubule stabilization.

Interferon alfa 2b (Interferon alfa-2b, Intron A)

Interferon alfa-2b is a protein product manufactured by recombinant DNA technology. The mechanism of antitumor activity is not understood clearly; however, direct antiproliferative effects against malignant cells and modulation of host immune response may play important roles. It is an effective option for patients with more extensive cutaneous disease that is not rapidly progressive in whom no need exists for a rapid reduction in lesions and in whom overall functional status is relatively good.


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