Which clinical history is characteristic of Raynaud phenomenon in CREST syndrome?

Updated: Oct 05, 2020
  • Author: Jeanie C Yoon, MD; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
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Maurice Raynaud defined Raynaud phenomenon in 1862. He observed episodes of pallor, cyanosis, and/or rubor on the hands bilaterally in response to cold or emotional stress, in the setting of normal proximal arterial pulsations, and without gangrene.

Patients occasionally describe color changes proximally as far as the wrist. Less frequently, the feet are involved. Rarely, the nose and ears can be affected. Involved skin is cool during the attack, but the proximal skin is warm. Color changes are often accompanied by symptoms that can include pain and paresthesias. The phenomenon lasts minutes to hours, and the patient is symptom-free between episodes.

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