What are the histologic features of pemphigus vulgaris?

Updated: Jun 14, 2018
  • Author: Bassam Zeina, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
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Answer

Histopathology demonstrates an intradermal blister. The earliest changes consist of intercellular edema with loss of intercellular attachments in the basal layer. Suprabasal epidermal cells separate from the basal cells to form clefts and blisters. Basal cells are separated from one another and stand like a row of tombstones on the floor of the blister, but they remain attached to the basement membrane. Blister cells contain some acantholytic cells. Histopathology can help differentiate pemphigus vulgaris from pemphigus foliaceous, which demonstrates a more superficial epidermal cleavage.

Tzanck preparation is a smear taken from the base of a blister or an oral erosion that contains acantholytic cells. Blistering is preceded by eosinophilic spongiosis in some patients. The superficial dermis has a mild, superficial, mixed inflammatory infiltrate, which includes some eosinophils.


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