Which medications in the drug class Immunomodulators are used in the treatment of Keloid and Hypertrophic Scar?

Updated: Jun 12, 2018
  • Author: Brian Berman, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
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Answer

Immunomodulators

This is a family of glycoproteins produced mainly by eukaryotic cells when induced by viral and nonviral triggers. Antiviral properties include induction of 2'-5' A synthetase, ribonuclease L, and protein kinase P1. Antiproliferative properties include induction of 2'-5' A synthetase, inhibition of growth factors, enhancement of p53, and down-regulation of c-myc, c-fos, and certain c-ras. Immunoregulatory properties include induction of class I and II MHC antigens, increase of natural killer cells, and inhibition of the production of TH-2 cytokines.

Interferon alfa-2b (Intron-A)

This is a protein product manufactured by recombinant DNA technology. Its mechanism of antitumor activity is not clearly understood; however, direct antiproliferative effects against malignant cells and modulation of host immune response may play important roles. Its immunomodulatory effects include suppression of tumor cell proliferation, enhancement of macrophage phagocytic activity, and augmentation of lymphocyte cytotoxicity. It is not approved by the FDA for use in hypertrophic scars and keloids.

Interferon beta 1a (Avonex, Rebif)

This is a protein product manufactured by recombinant DNA technology. Its mechanism of antitumor activity is not clearly understood; however, direct antiproliferative effects against malignant cells and modulation of host immune response may play important roles. Its immunomodulatory effects include suppression of tumor cell proliferation, enhancement of macrophage phagocytic activity, and augmentation of lymphocyte cytotoxicity. It is not approved by the FDA for use in hypertrophic scars and keloids.

Interferon alfa-n3 (Alferon N)

Interferon alfa is a protein product either manufactured from a single-species recombinant DNA process or obtained from pooled units of donated human leukocytes that have been induced by incomplete infection with a murine virus.

The mechanisms by which interferon alfa exerts antiviral activity are not understood clearly. However, modulation of the host immune response may play an important role.

Peginterferon alfa 2b (PEG Intron, PegIntron Redipen, Sylatron)

PEG-IFN consists of IFN alfa-2b attached to a single 12-kd PEG chain. It is excreted by the kidneys. PEG-IFN has sustained absorption, a slower rate of clearance, and a longer half-life than unmodified IFN, which permits more convenient once-weekly dosing and significantly improves quality of life for patients.

Pegylated interferon alfa-2a (Pegasys)

PEG-IFN alfa-2a consists of IFN alfa-2a attached to a 40-kd branched PEG molecule. PEG-IFN has sustained absorption, a slower rate of clearance, and a longer half-life than unmodified IFN, which permits more convenient once-weekly dosing and significantly improves quality of life for patients.


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