What are the cutaneous reactions to cytokine therapy agents?

Updated: Oct 14, 2020
  • Author: Jonathan E Blume, MD; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
  • Print

Cutaneous reactions to cytokine therapy are as follows [45] :

  • Erythropoietin - Abnormal hair growth, localized rash, palpebral edema, and widespread eczema

  • Granulocyte colony stimulating factor - Exacerbation of preexisting psoriasis, leukocytoclastic, localized erythema, localized pruritus, Sweet syndrome, and vasculitis

  • Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor - Alopecia, epidermolysis, exacerbation of vasculitis, exfoliative dermatitis, flushing, localized erythema, localized wheals, maculopapular eruptions, pruritus, purpura, and urticaria

  • IFN-alfa - Alopecia, anasarca, cutaneous vascular lesions, eosinophilic fasciitis, exacerbation of preexisting herpes labialis, facial erythema, fixed drug eruption, hyperpigmentation, nummular eczema, paraneoplastic pemphigus, pruritus, psoriasis, sarcoidosis, SLE, urticaria, and xerostomia

  • IFN-beta - Fatal pemphigus vulgaris (when used in combination with interleukin (IL)–2, localized reactions (common), and urticaria

  • IFN-gamma - Increased relapses in melanoma and localized inflammation

  • IL-1alpha - Mucositis, phlebitis, Shwartzman reaction, and xerostomia

  • IL-1beta - Erythema at surgical wound sites, phlebitis, and rash

  • IL-2 - Blisters, cutaneous ulcers, desquamation, erythema, erythema nodosum, erythroderma, exacerbation of autoimmune skin disorders, flushing, hypersensitivity to iodine contrast material, necrosis, pruritus, telogen effluvium, TEN, and urticaria

  • IL-3 - Facial flushing, hemorrhagic rash, thrombophlebitis, and urticaria

  • IL-4 - Facial and peripheral edema, Grover disease, and papular rash

  • IL-6 - Diffuse erythematous scaling macules and papules

  • TNF-alpha antagonists can also cause Sweet-like hypersensitivity reactions and neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis in addition to pustular folliculitis, psoriasis, interface dermatitis, lupus, vasculitis, and palmoplantar pustulosis. [46]

  • IL-12 and IL-23 monoclonal antibodies [47] - Injection site reactions

Did this answer your question?
Additional feedback? (Optional)
Thank you for your feedback!