Which medications in the drug class Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs are used in the treatment of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis?

Updated: Jul 25, 2019
  • Author: David D Sherry, MD; Chief Editor: Lawrence K Jung, MD  more...
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Answer

Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) interfere with prostaglandin synthesis through inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX), thus reducing swelling and pain. NSAIDs are used to treat all subtypes of JIA. They may help with pain and decrease swelling. Commonly used NSAIDs include naproxen, ibuprofen, tolmetin, diclofenac, and indomethacin.

Aspirin is no longer the drug of first choice because of the increased frequency of gastric toxicity and hepatotoxicity when compared to other NSAID medications. The cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitor celecoxib (Celebrex) may have a role in treatment when a bleeding diathesis is a potential problem.

Several dozen NSAIDs are available and can be classified into different groups of compounds. Commonly used NSAIDs include ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, piroxicam, and diclofenac. Predicting which patient will respond to a particular NSAID is not possible and many children who do not respond to one may benefit by changing to a different NSAID. Indomethacin is particularly effective for fever and pericarditis and is usually preferred for children with active systemic JIA.

Meloxicam (Mobic)

Meloxicam is a member of the enolic class of NSAIDs and is structurally related to piroxicam. The pediatric dosage is 0.125 mg/kg/d for patients aged 2 years or older, up to 7.5 mg qd.

Naproxen (Aleve, Naprelan, Naprosyn)

Naproxen is used for analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, treating arthralgia and arthritis. It inhibits inflammatory reactions and pain by decreasing activity of cyclooxygenase, which is responsible for prostaglandin synthesis. The pediatric dosage is 7-20 mg/kg/d PO divided bid/tid, not to exceed 1 g/d

Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin)

Ibuprofen inhibits inflammatory reactions and pain by decreasing prostaglandin synthesis. The adult dosage is 400 mg PO q4-6h, 600 mg q6h, or 800 mg q8h while symptoms persist, not to exceed 3.2 g/d; the pediatric dosage is 30-50 mg/kg/d PO divided qid, not to exceed 2.4 g/d.

Diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam)

This is one of a series of phenylacetic acids that has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in pharmacological studies. It is believed to inhibit the enzyme cyclooxygenase, which is essential in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Diclofenac can cause hepatotoxicity; hence, liver enzymes should be monitored in the first 8 weeks of treatment. It is absorbed rapidly; metabolism occurs in the liver by demethylation, deacetylation, and glucuronide conjugation. The delayed-release, enteric-coated form is diclofenac sodium, and the immediate-release form is diclofenac potassium.

Celecoxib (Celebrex)

Celecoxib inhibits primarily COX-2. Inhibition of COX-1 may contribute to NSAID GI toxicity. At therapeutic concentrations, COX-1 isoenzyme is not inhibited; thus, incidence of GI toxicity, such as endoscopic peptic ulcers, bleeding ulcers, perforations, and obstructions, may be decreased when compared with nonselective NSAIDs.

Seek the lowest dose for each patient. The adult dosage is 100-200 mg PO bid; the pediatric dosage has not been established for patients younger than 2 years, is 50 mg PO bid for patients 2 years or older whose weight is ≥10 kg to ≤25 kg, and is 100 mg PO bid for patients 2 years or older whose weight is greater than 25 kg.

Tolmetin (Tolectin)

Tolmetin inhibits prostaglandin synthesis by decreasing the activity of the enzyme cyclooxygenase, which in turn decreases formation of prostaglandin precursors. The pediatric dosage is 20 mg/kg/d PO divided tid/qid initially, then 15-30 mg/kg/d, not to exceed 30 mg/kg/d

Indomethacin (Indocin)

Indomethacin is rapidly absorbed, and metabolism occurs in the liver by demethylation, deacetylation, and glucuronide conjugation. It inhibits prostaglandin synthesis. The adult dosage is 25-50 mg PO bid/tid, not to exceed 200 mg/d, and the ER product may be administered qd or bid; the pediatric dosage is 1-2 mg/kg/d PO divided bid/qid, not to exceed 4 mg/kg/d or 150-200 mg/d


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