What is the role of TNF-? inhibitors in the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in 5 or more joints?

Updated: Jul 25, 2019
  • Author: David D Sherry, MD; Chief Editor: Lawrence K Jung, MD  more...
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Escalation to a TNF-α inhibitor follows if 3-6 months (depending on disease characteristics and severity) of methotrexate or leflunomide provides inadequate control. Patients who show inadequate response after 3-4 months (depending on disease characteristics and severity) of TNF-α inhibitor treatment can be switched to a different TNF-α inhibitor or to abatacept. If these agents prove inadequate, patients may be started on rituximab; this agent may be most appropriate in patients with RF-positive polyarticular JIA.

A study confirmed the acceptable long-term tolerability of etanercept and adalimumab treatment in polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis. However, the authors also add that whether the onset of inflammatory bowel disease and uveitis during etanercept monotherapy is a paradoxical effect or an inadequate response to therapy remains unclear and requires further investigation in this growing cohort. [34, 35]

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