What are risk factors for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)?

Updated: Jul 25, 2019
  • Author: David D Sherry, MD; Chief Editor: Lawrence K Jung, MD  more...
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In a nested case–control study of 153 children with juvenile arthritis and 1,530 matched controls, researchers found that exposure to antibiotics during childhood significantly increased the risk for developing JIA (adjusted odds ratio = 2.6) in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with those with no exposure, the odds ratio for developing JIA was 3.1 for children exposed to one or two courses of antibiotics, and for those exposed to three to five courses the odds ratio was 3.8. [13]  The association between antibiotic exposure and JIA was similar for different classes of antibiotics. No association was found between exposure to nonbacterial antimicrobial agents and JIA. Adjustment for the number and type of infections and age at antibiotic exposure did not change the associations significantly. [13]

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