Which respiratory maneuvers are associated with spontaneous pneumomediastinum (PM)?

Updated: Feb 26, 2019
  • Author: Patrick L Carolan, MD; Chief Editor: Girish D Sharma, MD, FCCP, FAAP  more...
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A large and diverse group of factors has been implicated in the development of spontaneous pneumomediastinum. Various respiratory maneuvers that have in common the development of high intrathoracic pressures may lead to pneumomediastinum. These include Valsalva maneuvers, coughing, vigorous crying, and forceful retching or vomiting.

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