Figure 1. Photograph showing the Temple of Aescelpius near Pergamon, one of the original healing sites in early Greek medicine. From the author's personal collection.
Figure 2. Illustration showing the Hippocratic treatment of spine injuriesthe rack system and the technique of using gravity to straighten the spine. Reprinted from Hippocrates: The Geniune Works of Hippocrates (translated by Adams F). London: Sydenham Society, 1844, Vol 2, pp 117118.
Figure 3. Text from an early Latin publication in which Paul of Aegineta describes his treatment of a vertebral injury. Reprinted from Paul of Aegineta: Opus de re medica nunc primum integrum. Cologne: Opera et impensa Joannis Soteris, 1534.
Figure 4. English translation of Paul of Aegineta's treatment of a spine column injury with bone fracture. Reprinted from Paul of Aegineta: Seven Books of Paulus Aegineta (translated by Adams F). London: Sydenham Society, 18441847.
Figure 5. Early anatomical scene from a manuscript based on Avicenna, which has been attributed to Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu, ca. early 18th century. From the author's personal collection.
Figure 6. The anatomy of the skeleton is represented in this early manuscript leaf from a work attributed to Avicenna. The early understanding of anatomy was quite primitive among the European and Arabic cultures. An early Arabic anatomical manuscript from the author's collection.
Figure 7. Example of an early Arabic physician using a forceps to remove a foreign body from the forehead. Manuscript attributed to Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu, ca. early 18th century; from the author's personal collection.
Figure 8. Example of the application of the cautery for the treatment of wounds and bleeding. Manuscript attributed to Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu, ca. early 18th century; from the author's personal collection.
Figure 9. Illustration showing the use of a rack to straighten the spine. From an early manuscript (attributed to Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu, ca. early 18th century) on the subject of Avicenna and the treatment of spine injuries. In the author's personal collection.
Figure 10. An early printed example of the treatment of spine injuries in a work by Avicenna. Illustrated here are some of the examples of spine stablization. From Avicenna: Liber Canonis, De Medicinis Cordialibus, et Cantica. Basel: Per Joannes Heruagios, 1556.
Figure 11. An early illustrated work dealing with the school of Salerno. The cover shows Constantine the African lecturing to the school. From Anastasius, Arnaldus, Camerarius J, et al: Regimen sanitatis Salernitanum. Conservandae bonae valetudinis praecepta longe saluberrima, regi Angliae quondam a doctoribus scholae Salernitantae versibus . . . . per Joannem Curionem . . . . Franc: Apud haeredes Christiani Egenolphi, 1573.
Figure 12. An illustrated leaf from an important early manuscript on the works of Roger of Salerno. The concepts of "professor" and teaching within the Church guidelines are clearly evident here. Courtesy of the British Museum, Sloane Manuscript Collection. Manuscript No. 1977.
Figure 13. An illustrated leaf from an important early manuscript on the works of Roger of Salerno. Illustrated here are some early surgical treatments, including some neurosurgical and spine treatments. Courtesy of the British Museum, Sloane Manuscript Collection. Manuscript No. 1977.
Figure 14. An enlargement of one of the panels shown in Fig. 13 demonstrating treatment of a spine injury. The typical treatment consisted of using gravity and extension of the spine to treat a curvature. Courtesy of the British Museum, Sloane Manuscript Collection. Manuscript No. 1977.
Figure 15. Title page from a printed work on several early and prominent medieval physicians and surgeons, including the works of the great French surgeon Guy de Chauliac. From Guy de Chauliac: Cyrurgia . . . Et Cyrurgia Bruni. Teodorici. Rolandi. Lanfranci. Rogerii. Bertapalie. Noviter impressus. Venetiis: Per Bernardinum Venetum de Vitalibus, 1519.