Medscape www.medscape.com

References for:
Indications for and Benefits of Lumbar Facet Joint Block

[Neurosurg Focus 13(2), 2002. © 2002 American Association of Neurological Surgeons]


  1. Anderson GB, Svensson HO, Oden A: The intensity of work recovery in low back pain. Spine 8:880-884, 1983
  2. Cavanaugh JM, Ozaktay AC, Yamashita HT, et al: Lumbar facet pain: biomechanics, neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. J Biomech 29:1117-1129, 1996
  3. Cavanaugh JM, Ozaktay AC, Yamashita T, et al: Mechanism of low back pain: a neurophysiologic and neuroanatomic study. Clin Orthop 335:166-180, 1997
  4. Cooper RG, Freemont AJ, Hoyland JA: Herniated intervertebral disc-associated periradicular fibrosis and vascular abnormalities occur without inflammatory cell infiltration. Spine 20: 591-598, 1995
  5. Cowan NC, Bush K, Katz DE, et al: The natural history of sciatica: a prospective radiological study. Clin Radiol 46:7-12, 1992
  6. Dolan AL, Ryan PJ, Arden NK, et al: The value of SPECT scans in identifying back pain likely to benefit from facet joint injection. Br J Rheumatol 35:1269-1273, 1996
  7. Eisenstein SM, Parry CR: The lumbar facet joint arthrosis syndrome. Clinical presentation and articular surface changes. J Bone Joint Surg Br 69:3-7, 1987
  8. el-Khoury GY, Renfrew DL: Percutaneous procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of lower back pain: Diskography, facet-joint injection, and epidural injection. AJR 157:685-691, 1991
  9. Gangi A, Dietemann JL, Mortazavi R, et al: CT-guided interventional procedures for pain management in the lumbosacral spine. Radiographics 18:621-633, 1998
  10. Goupille P, Fitoussi V, Cotty P, et al: [Injection into the lumbar vertebrae in chronic low back pain. Results in 206 patients.] Rev Rhum Ed Fr 60:797-801, 1993 (Fr)
  11. Hadler NM: The disabling backache. An international perspective. Spine 20:640-649, 1995
  12. Helbig T, Lee CK: The lumbar facet syndrome. Spine 13: 61-64, 1988
  13. Hoyland JA, Freemont AJ, Jayson MI: Intervertebral foramen venous obstruction. A cause of periradicular fibrosis? Spine 14: 558-568, 1989
  14. Humke T, Grob D, Dvorak J, et al: Translaminar screw fixation of the lumbar and lumbosacral spine. A 5-year follow-up. Spine 23:1180-1184, 1998
  15. Jackson RP: The facet syndrome. Myth or reality? Clin Orthop 279:110-121, 1992
  16. Jerosch J, Castro WH, Halm H, et al: [Long-term results following percutaneous facet coagulation.] Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb 131:241-247, 1993 (Ger)
  17. Jerosch J, Castro WH, Liljenqvist U: Percutaneous facet coagulation: indication, technique, results, and complications. Neurosurg Clin N Am 7:119-134, 1996
  18. Kawaguchi Y, Matsui H, Tsuji H: Back muscle injury after posterior lumbar spine surgery. Part 1: Histologic and histochemical analyses in rats. Spine 19:2590-2597, 1994
  19. Lilius G, Laasonen EM, Myllynen P, et al: Lumbar facet joint syndrome. A randomised clinical trial. J Bone Joint Surg Br 71:681-684, 1989
  20. Lilius G, Laasonen EM, Myllynen P, et al: [Lumbar facet joint syndrome. Significance of non-organic signs. A randomized placebo-controlled clinical study.] Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot 75:493-500, 1989 (Fr)
  21. Lippitt AB: The facet joint and its role in spine pain. Management with facet joint injections. Spine 9:746-750, 1984
  22. Lloyd JW, Bernard JD, Glynn CJ: Cryoanalgesia. A new approach to pain relief. Lancet 2:932-934, 1976
  23. Lynch MC, Taylor JF: Facet joint injection for low back pain. A clinical study. J Bone Joint Surg Br 68:138-141, 1986
  24. Maistrelli GL, Vaughan PA, Evans DC, et al: Lumbar disc herniation in the elderly. Spine 12:63-66, 1987
  25. Marks RC, Houston T, Thulbourne T: Facet joint injection and facet nerve block: a randomized comparison in 86 patients with chronic low back pain. Pain 49:325-328, 1992
  26. Marshall LL, Trethewie ER, Curtain CC: Chemical radiculitis. A clinical, physiological and immunological study. Clin Orthop 129:61-67, 1997
  27. Mirkovic SR, Schwartz DG, Glazier KD: Anatomic considerations in lumbar posterolateral percutaneous procedures. Spine 20:1965-1971, 1995
  28. Miyake R, Ikata T, Katoh S, et al: Morphologic analysis of the facet joint in the immature lumbosacral spine with special reference to spondylolysis. Spine 21:783-789, 1996
  29. Mooney V, Robertson J: The facet syndrome. Clin Orthop 115:149-156, 1976
  30. Nachemson A: Intradiscal measurements of pH in patients with lumbar rhizopathies. Acta Orthop Scand 40:23-42, 1969
  31. North RB, Kidd DH, Zahurak M, et al: Specificity of diagnostic nerve blocks: a prospective, randomized study of sciatica due to lumbosacral spine disease. Pain 65:77-85, 1996
  32. Nygaard OP, Kloster R, Dullerud R, et al: No association between peridural scar and outcome after lumbar microdiscectomy. Acta Neurochir 139:1095-1100, 1997
  33. Oudenhoven RC: The role of laminectomy, facet rhizotomy, and epidural steroids. Spine 4:145-147, 1979
  34. Purcell-Jones G, Pither CE, Justins DM: Paravertebral somatic nerve block: a clinical, radiographic, and computed tomographic study in chronic pain patients. Anesth Analg 68:32-39, 1989
  35. Rauschning W: Normal and pathologic anatomy of the lumbar root canals. Spine 12:1008-1019, 1987
  36. Revel M, Poiraudeau S, Auleley GR, et al: Capacity of the clinical picture to characterize low back pain relieved by facet joint anesthesia. Proposed criteria to identify patients with painful facet joints. Spine 23:1972-1977, 1998
  37. Revel ME, Listrat VM, Chevalier XJ, et al: Facet joint block for low back pain: identifying predictors of a good response. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 73:824-828, 1992
  38. Schleifer J, Fenzl G, Wolf A, et al: [Treatment of lumbar facet joint syndrome by CT-guided infiltration of the intervertebral joints.] Radiologe 34:666-670, 1994 (Ger)
  39. Schleifer J, Kiefer M, Hagen T: [Lumbar facet syndrome. Recommendation for staging before and after intra-articular injection treatment.] Radiologe 35:844-847, 1995 (Ger)
  40. Suseki K, Takahashi Y, Takahashi K, et al: CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibers projecting to lumbar facet joints through the paravertebral sympathetic trunk in rats. Neurosci Lett 221: 41-44, 1996
  41. Suseki K, Takahashi Y, Takahashi K, et al: Innervation of the lumbar facet joints. Origins and functions. Spine 22:477-485, 1997
  42. Vallfors B: Acute, subacute and chronic low back pain: clinical symptoms, absenteeism, and working environment. Scand J Rehabil Med Suppl 11:1-98, 1985
  43. van Tulder MW, Koes BW, Bouter LM: Conservative treatment of acute and chronic nonspecific low back pain. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of the most common interventions. Spine 22:2128-2156, 1997