References for:
Benzocaine-Induced Methemoglobinemia

[South Med J 93(1):83-86, 2000. © 2000 Southern Medical Association]

  1. Curry SC, Carlton MW: Hematological consequences of poisoning -- methemoglobinemia. Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. Haddad LM, Shannon MW, Winchester JF (eds). Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 3rd Ed, 1998, pp 226-230
  2. Griffin JP: Methemoglobinemia. Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev 1997; 16:45-63
  3. O'Donohue WJ Jr, Moss LM, Angelillo VA: Acute methemoglobinemia induced by topical benzocaine and lidocaine. Arch Intern Med 1980; 140:1508-1510
  4. Douglas WW, Fairbanks VF: Methemoglobinemia induced by a topical anesthetic spray (cetacaine). Chest 1977; 71:587-591
  5. Sandza JG Jr, Roberts RW, Shaw RC, et al: Symptomatic methemoglobinemia with a commonly used topical anesthetic, cetacaine. Ann Thorac Surg 1980; 30:187-190
  6. Cooper HA: Methemoglobinemia caused by benzocaine topical spray. South Med J 1997; 90:946-948
  7. Coleman MD, Coleman NA: Drug induced methemoglobinemia -- treatment issues. Drug Saf 1996; 14:394-405
  8. Clary B, Skaryak L, Tedder M, et al: Methemoglobinemia complicating topical anesthesia during bronchoscopic procedures. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1997; 114:293-295
  9. Wong DH: Methemoglobinemia and oxyhemoglobinemia concentration. Mayo Clin Proc 1995; 70:197-198
  10. Guerriero SE: Methemoglobinemia caused by topical benzocaine. Pharmacotherapy 1997; 17:1038-1040
  11. Product label, Beutilich LP, Pharmaceuticals, Waukegan, Ill
  12. Muchmore EA, Dahl BJ: One blue man with mucositis. N Engl J Med (Letter) 1992; 327:133
  13. Physicians' Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ, Medical Economics Co, 1999, p 734
  14. Product label, Beutilich LP, Pharmaceuticals, Waukegan, Ill